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giovedì 23 dicembre 2010

THE PRINCE Machiavelli ( English Version)


The "Prince" basically sets the rules that are necessary to establish a sovereign state and preserve it. For example, Machiavelli says that a prince should prefer being feared to being loved, he must sacrifice the power interests of the state, shall, when requested by the political necessities, ability also miss the word: I realize that means were sad, but in those troubled times and moved it believed necessary to achieve the great goal that the author was the subject of his meditations: the unification of Italy. Theory that the end justifies the means, was later criticized as being immoral, but, for me, Machiavelli wanted to go back to the true reality of things, that has seen things as they are not as they should be. It is not that he does not appreciate the virtues, but in an age of violence and bullying only a strong and ruthless prince could have been an Italy united and powerful. And this is the ideal that is uppermost in the thoughts of Machiavelli. Let us analyze the various chapters in his book: it begins with a dedication to the Magnificent Lorenzo de 'Medici the Younger. It 's impossible that Machiavelli recognizes this poor gentleman in his ideal prince. The letter is so direct so virtuous man who can implement his teachings. The first chapter speaks of the nature of their rulers and how they fought for. They can be inherited or new, but those stand out among the new entirely new, like Milan with Francesco Sforza, or those that are added to a principle that gains them, as the King of Spain Naples. You win or with their own weapons or those of others, or luck or virtue. Machiavelli makes to the success of every human action fortune, top element to the human will, and virtue, the sum of personal skills. However for the Florentine, the virtuous man can overcome the obstacles put to it by luck. He, in fact, considers his luck as an opportunity to exploit the virtuous person knows. Then the second chapter in particular, the Crown Prince and the third titled "The Mixed principalities," how difficult it is to maintain a new principle, as happened to Louis XII with his duchy of Milan. This chapter also talks about two types of mixed principalities: the near and similar customs to the principality conqueror, who are also the easiest to maintain, and those distant and different, which are the most difficult. According to Machiavelli, it's best to keep the second kind of principle, which are sent to the colonies and that the prince resides there, what exactly did that Louis XII. E 'in this chapter that we see the political thought of Machiavelli: the people in arms may reject even the most battle-hardened armies. In the fourth chapter he explains why the reign of Darius rebelled against the successors was an absolute reign, that the difficulties were in winning, because the people, united and with no idea of rebellion was always subdued and controlled by a single prince, and so it was more difficult to bribe, but once subject and destroyed the dynasty of the ruling there was no one who possessed authority over the people. In contrast, another kind of kingdom, according to the French system, it was easier to conquer, as the king lived in the midst of a crowd of gentlemen loved and recognized by their subjects. These barons, still dissatisfied, they could open yourself up the way for the conquest, but once conquered the kingdom and destroyed the head of the ruling family were also addressed. The fifth chapter describes how we should govern those cities and those principles, which were free before being captured and had their own laws. Machiavelli gives us three ways: to destroy completely, as did the Romans with Capua, Numantia and Carthage. This is the most effective in person or go to reside within them to create a government made up of friends, as the Spartans with Athens and Thebes, but lost. In the sixth chapter we talk about how much more stable won with a new principle in their weapons and capabilities, namely, the virtue of a conquered with luck. This is demonstrated by the examples of Cyrus, Romulus, Moses. The seventh chapter speaks of the fragility of the princely states won with luck, as Cesare Borgia, who, having lost fortune (his father's support of Pope Alexander VI), also lost its status. Among the various methods to win a state that is also through murder of the previous ruling, as did Agathocles of Syracuse. In this chapter, the eighth, we note the distinction between momentary cruelty, cruelty necessary and permanent, not necessary. Machiavelli speaks of civil principality when a private citizen, helped by the people and nobles, a prince of his country. This is the topic of the ninth chapter. There are differences if you are a prince with the help of the nobles or the people: with the help of the nobles have more difficulties because they are considered equal to the prince, but they are easier to defeat because they are few. However the main thing, in either case, you immediately become a friend of the people. When you do not have their own military forces, one must also know how to defend and strengthen their fortifications and implementing a defensive strategy, but such a principle can not be strong reputation (Chapter X). There are also the principles that govern and not have been that subjects who do not command. These are the ecclesiastical princes. The only problems that arise are the first to possess the kingdom, but after the religious institutions, with their strength, help the prince to stay in power even if it's okay. In this chapter, the eleventh, Machiavelli also makes considerations about the various popes who have followed and estimated to have raised: the first of Alexander VI, the papacy enjoyed little credit, but all he did for his son Cesare Borgia, which we discussed earlier, it was over, and the death of his son, to benefit the papacy that inherited the conquests. Then came the time of Julius II as well as being a very large state of the Church, devised a way to make money never implemented first: the sale of indulgences. He also conquered Bologna, subdued the Venetians and expelled the French from Italy. In order for a principle is to lay solid foundations for good, or good laws and good armies. This chapter (XII) is Almighty. They may own or mercenaries, auxiliaries and mixed. For Machiavelli the mercenary forces are one of the most serious drawbacks to the principles that use them, because they are not faithful and concerned only the salary. All his work as a historian and political writer is a battle against the mercenary. He also speaks of Venice and Florence, which they increased their power through mercenary troops. This only happened for a number of favorable conditions. The type of auxiliary troops (Chapter XIII), namely those provided by foreign realms, are the worst, because if you lose is your downfall and if you win you do to the risk that their prisoner and that he did not go away as more Emperor of Constantinople succeeded with ten thousand Turks. Among other things, are even more united and organized than mercenary. The fourteenth chapter focuses on the relationship between the prince and weapons in general: the only task that absolutely must play a prince to keep the state's command and dedicate themselves to arms even in peacetime, as did Francesco Sforza, becoming, by simple citizen, Duke of Milan. To keep in training often must practice hunting and get to know the nature of the place where he lives. A good prince must know how to mimic that in the past that did the best principles, as with Achilles and Alexander the Great with Scipio Cyrus. The author takes as an example of perfect prince Filipomene, which questioned the way wherever he went, in that situation, to withdraw, the enemy withdrew to chase and attack. Fifteenth chapter begins by examining the spiritual qualities of the prince who is the central problem of the Treaty. Machiavelli says that a prince in this chapter, to remain in power, must behave in a manner that is not good regardless of the bad name derived from this behavior. In fact, it is inevitable that a man who wants to lead by good people do good in the midst of going broke. For the author, a prince should put on the same moral level of those who govern. In the sixteenth chapter speaks of generosity and frugality. The bounty is considered in a negative way: at the beginning makes you have a good reputation, later, did the money, it forces you to levy taxes and therefore to be hated by his subjects and not rated by others for poverty. The only time when we should be generous and takes possession of property of others, as did Cyrus and Caesar. Parsimony, however, even if at first you do not enjoy a good reputation, after seeing that you are able to defend themselves and win even without burdening the population, we will consider generous man. They cited the examples of Pope Julius II, who used the bounty only to ascend to power, after devoting himself to the war, Louis XII, who succeeded because of its great frugality, to do a lot of wars with no extra fees. In short, one of the most important defects that help to reign is the stinginess. The seventeenth chapter focuses on the question: better to be loved rather than feared or feared than loved? Fiorentino for a prince to keep his subjects united and faithful, may be considered cruel and should be feared, and will not be either hated or loved. However, the cruelty is essential in war. In the eighteenth chapter speaks of loyalty. It is a very laudable, but not necessary for the purposes of big business, indeed, experience shows that those who were cured of loyalty have always prevailed. This chapter also lists two methods of fighting with the laws and the one with the force. These two methods complement each other and a good prince must have both. The men watch a lot of appearances, so a good ruler must appear fair, merciful, religious, honest and human, even if it is not, but must always be ready to change itself into the exact opposite. So a prince must take care not to result to the means by which we arrive. The nineteenth chapter is a summary of all the features that a prince must be willing to get well: it must not appropriate the things of the people, should not be superficial, effeminate and timid, but must appear brave, and very great strength of character . If this would not achieve self-image, must have two fears: the subjects and foreign powers. From the plots may be the only help from the people, because they do not always reflect the will of all the conspirators, but to defeat an enemy you must have a good army. As usual, Machiavelli makes many historical examples of which I mention a conspiracy involving a failure: Messer Annibale Bentivoglio, Bologna was killed by the Prince of Canneschi. Immediately after the murder, the people of Bologna killed the entire family of Canneschi and he placed a distant relative of the Bologna Bentivoglio, son of a blacksmith. In conclusion, a prince must be careful not to tighten the nobles and to meet the people so as not to be afraid of conspiracies. In this chapter, the twentieth, we talk about what it will be useful to disarm the factions popular subjects or food or building forts. We say that with regard to the disarmament of his subjects, it could be useful when you are faced with a new Prince with a new principality, because they are gratified that those weapons, and if you act contrary are offended, however, when a prince wins a province must disarm, excluding of course those who have been on your side, but also over time weakening the latter. Turning to the factions, the author, internal divisions have never been a good thing, indeed, make the city more vulnerable to the enemy. Continuing with the fortified since ancient times there has been used to build these buildings, but more recently people like Niccolò Vitelli Guidobaldo da Montefeltro and the dismantling. Why is that? Machiavelli says that people are more afraid of the enemies of the people who built fortresses, who otherwise do not build them, and reiterates, saying that the fortress is safer not to be hated by the people. The twenty-first chapter speaks of how even a prince can make a good self-image, an image of a man of great talent and excellent. In domestic policy should be decided, to reward or punish in an exemplary manner. In foreign policy should be admired and be surprised by the subjects with large companies such as Ferdinand of Aragon, but above all it must always stand in favor of someone and never remain neutral so that your ally feels bound by a pact of friendship and gratitude and never lets you down. To give a good image, the prince must also establish the party and participate in meetings of the district but always with great majesty and dignity. Very important is also the choice of ministers. This selection can be seen from the intelligence of a man, surrounding himself with foolish men, the verdict on him can never be good. These ministers should be so devoted to their master to him to think first about themselves and if a prince has the luck to find one so if you must have with gifts and praise. The twenty-third chapter speaks of flatterers. A prince must rely on only a few people who have sincere and genuine choice within his state. He should feel only they and not the final decision must always wait for him. In the twenty-fourth chapter is like a rebuke to the Italian princes who lost their state, as Frederick of Aragon, King of Naples, Ludovico il Moro, Duke of Milan. The reasons are varied, but common: they did not have an army, they were detested by the people or the nobles. Then their fault, not luck. In the twenty-fifth chapter Machiavelli uses a simile to describe his luck. It is like a river if it were fully destroyed everything in, but when it's calm men can build dikes to channel and tame such a force. But luck runs her fury knows where banks were not created to address it. A prince, who lives just relying on it can suddenly go broke, that's because the luck has changed direction. Thus, for Machiavelli is one who has successfully adapted to the times. After several instances this chapter ends with another simile: luck is compared to a woman. Only the impetuous can dominate. In fact it is the companion of the young, fearless and less cautious. The last chapter is an exhortation addressed to the prince of the House of Medici to unite Italy healing wounds, putting an end to looting and taxation continue to tear it. Account that the Swiss and Spanish armies are not as terrible as they say, he could create a third army that will win. Machiavelli concludes reassuring that a new ruling would be welcomed by all with open arms. The last verses are taken from "My Italy" by Petrarch. It appears as a further inducement to the new prince addressed even if just by Petrarch wrote about two hundred years ago: The face under the fury of foreigners, the fight is short because the old value that was in the Italian heart of the Roman people is not dead yet.
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