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mercoledì 26 settembre 2012

Foreign Affairs issue of the American electoral campaign

What happened in Benghazi leads us to consider how the demonstrations and the killing of an American ambassador affect the relations between the liberal democratic world and Islam as well as the American electoral campaign. Once again, we were surprised by the anger aroused in crowds from Islamic film that denigrates the Prophet. For us responsibility is specific, for Islam is fundamentalist and their collective instead. It is not anyone's fault, but our different historical trajectories. We have known the Renaissance and the Enlightenment after the Middle Ages. Islam after the initial golden age, has undergone a continuous decline. Those who do not accept these differences are reassured in their beliefs that the protests, at least the most violent, have been manipulated by radical Islamists and anti-Western demonstrations have had anywhere a small number of members. It turns out that in Egypt some protesters have even been paid. The transitional governments, born from the "Arab awakening" have almost always reacted with determination. The demonstrations spread, however, between Indonesia and India in the east and Morocco and Nigeria in the west. In Benghazi was killed the U.S. ambassador to Libya, who visited the city to usher in a symbolic date - the anniversary of the attacks of September 11, 2001 - of the new American Cultural Center. That there has been no manipulation is undoubted. The film defamatory of the Prophet Muhammad had already been around for three months amid general indifference. It became a "case" to spread it on Youtube and the Internet, another demonstration - after that the Arab uprisings - the ability of contagion that have modern communication networks, global, real-time. They are able to mobilize and exploit the masses, without the constraints of space and time. The institutional structures - even if they wanted to do - can not oppose the crowds contaminants. The pyramids which are organized institutions have long activation times. Even political pragmatists, as is certainly the Egyptian president Morsi, are obliged to adopt an ambiguous attitude. They need economic and political support of the USA, but can not afford to leave the square in the hands of the Islamists. The tensions were magnified by rumor spread by Islamic radical circles, that to produce and air the movie had been a American "State Tv", which as you know does not exist. The episode reminded that took place in 2006 with the release, which was also delayed by months and clearly exploited by Islamists, the Muhammad cartoons published in Denmark. Even then, they were attacked Danish embassies and commercial offices. In clashes with the police, which continued for a couple of months, more than one hundred people died. Also remember the show - we do not know if it was more childish or more foolish - the portrait of Muhammad on the shirt of the Minister Calderoli (Lega Nord di Umberto Bossi) in Italy, which triggered violent protests in Benghazi, violently repressed by the police of Gaddafi. The new ruling classes - Egypt, Yemen and Tunisia - have reacted with considerable embarrassment and ambiguity. Rushed in solidarity with the U.S. and the desire to follow the mood of the crowd, a mix to put it briefly. It has made very precisely Libya, whose government has deployed heavily on the violence. Surveys show that public opinion in Libya is the most favorable to the USA in the Arab world. The show also became president of the National Congress of General Abu Shagur, long lived in exile in the USA and also holds American citizenship. That the situation is changing is demonstrated by fifty arrests have already been made for the alleged perpetrators of the attack on the U.S. Consulate in Benghazi and condemnation expressed by all political forces in respect of the assailants and the assassination of Ambassador Chris Stevens. However it can be said that the situation Egyptian presents critical elements different from that Libyan. In Libya, the new government will have its be done to control and disarm the militias. In Egypt, there is a possibility of sectarian politicization of any event which is considered an offense to Islam, Muslims and Copts and one Muslim Brotherhood and the Salafists. The radicalization of religion is certainly lower in Libya, particularly in Tripoli. The Salafist party Libyan gained only one seat in parliament. In Cyrenaica, however, returned to active elements of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group and extremists who have destroyed a dozen sanctuaries "Sufi", considered heretics by Salafis. The anti-American demonstrations and the killing of the representative of the U.S. in Libya have not been manipulated only in Arab countries but also in the election campaign in the USA. Obama has had to justify. He did "climbing on the mirrors." He had to avoid the reproach you have completely failed in his policy of "outstretched hand" against Islam. It wanted to restore prestige and authority of the United States. He did so, saying the riots in some countries and abandoning them to their fate certain dictators, in fact U.S. allies. It showed uncertainty in respect of Syria and Bahrain. The killing of the Ambassador, has almost certainly lost his mind and decided to send two warships on the Libyan coast. It is not clear to which may serve, if not to show American voters how good he is and decided as "commander in chief". Then, fortunately for Obama, his competitor Mitt Romney, was not far behind. Instead, they merely express solidarity with the president, joining national mourning for the massacre of the diplomat and his collaborators, he clumsily designed to take advantage of the event to attack Obama, accusing him of failing and being weak. He did it in an arrogant way. He would have made a better figure suggesting Obama to go together in Benghazi, to inaugurate the American Cultural Center of Benghazi. Foreign policy is thus entered in the American electoral campaign. In my opinion, was to stay out. The basic problem is underlying resentment of Islam that should result from an inferiority complex derived from history, and it is not our fault. Does not depend on what the U.S. and Europe do, but what they are. This complex is usually in a potential state. But if it is handled, emerges and results in demonstrations, protests and violence that lead to increase the differences.

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